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Targets that do not refer to files but are just actions are called phony targets. See Phony Targets , for information about this kind of target. See Errors in Recipes , to see how to cause make to ignore errors from rm or any other command. This is called the default goal. Goals are the targets that make strives ultimately to update. You can override this behavior using the command line see Arguments to Specify the Goals or with the. In the simple example of the previous section, the default goal is to update the executable program edit ; therefore, we put that rule first.

In the example, this rule is for relinking edit ; but before make can fully process this rule, it must process the rules for the files that edit depends on, which in this case are the object files. Each of these files is processed according to its own rule. The recompilation must be done if the source file, or any of the header files named as prerequisites, is more recent than the object file, or if the object file does not exist.

The other rules are processed because their targets appear as prerequisites of the goal. If some other rule is not depended on by the goal or anything it depends on, etc. Before recompiling an object file, make considers updating its prerequisites, the source file and header files.

But make would update automatically generated C programs, such as those made by Bison or Yacc, by their own rules at this time. After recompiling whichever object files need it, make decides whether to relink edit. This must be done if the file edit does not exist, or if any of the object files are newer than it.

If an object file was just recompiled, it is now newer than edit , so edit is relinked. Thus, if we change the file insert. If we change the file command. In our example, we had to list all the object files twice in the rule for edit repeated here :. Such duplication is error-prone; if a new object file is added to the system, we might add it to one list and forget the other.

We can eliminate the risk and simplify the makefile by using a variable. Variables allow a text string to be defined once and substituted in multiple places later see How to Use Variables. We would define such a variable objects with a line like this in the makefile:. We can therefore omit the recipes from the rules for the object files.

See Using Implicit Rules. Here is the entire example, with both of these changes, and a variable objects as suggested above:. This is how we would write the makefile in actual practice. See Phony Targets , and Errors in Recipes. Because implicit rules are so convenient, they are important. You will see them used frequently.

When the objects of a makefile are created only by implicit rules, an alternative style of makefile is possible. In this style of makefile, you group entries by their prerequisites instead of by their targets. Here is what one looks like:.

Here defs. Whether this is better is a matter of taste: it is more compact, but some people dislike it because they find it clearer to put all the information about each target in one place. Compiling a program is not the only thing you might want to write rules for. In practice, we might want to write the rule in a somewhat more complicated manner to handle unanticipated situations.

We would do this:. This prevents make from getting confused by an actual file called clean and causes it to continue in spite of errors from rm. A rule such as this should not be placed at the beginning of the makefile, because we do not want it to run by default! Thus, in the example makefile, we want the rule for edit , which recompiles the editor, to remain the default goal. The information that tells make how to recompile a system comes from reading a data base called the makefile.

Makefiles contain five kinds of things: explicit rules , implicit rules , variable definitions , directives , and comments. Rules, variables, and directives are described at length in later chapters. You cannot use comments within variable references or function calls: any instance of will be treated literally rather than as the start of a comment inside a variable reference or function call.

Comments within a recipe are passed to the shell, just as with any other recipe text. The shell decides how to interpret it: whether or not this is a comment is up to the shell. Within a define directive, comments are not ignored during the definition of the variable, but rather kept intact in the value of the variable. When the variable is expanded they will either be treated as make comments or as recipe text, depending on the context in which the variable is evaluated.

GNU make has no limit on the length of a statement line, up to the amount of memory in your computer. However, it is difficult to read lines which are too long to display without wrapping or scrolling. If the. Then make will perform variable expansion. By default, when make looks for the makefile, it tries the following names, in order: GNUmakefile , makefile and Makefile. Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile. We recommend Makefile because it appears prominently near the beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.

The first name checked, GNUmakefile , is not recommended for most makefiles. You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU make , and will not be understood by other versions of make. Other make programs look for makefile and Makefile , but not GNUmakefile.

If make finds none of these names, it does not use any makefile. Then you must specify a goal with a command argument, and make will attempt to figure out how to remake it using only its built-in implicit rules. All the makefiles are effectively concatenated in the order specified. The include directive tells make to suspend reading the current makefile and read one or more other makefiles before continuing.

The directive is a line in the makefile that looks like this:. If filenames is empty, nothing is included and no error is printed. Extra spaces are allowed and ignored at the beginning of the line, but the first character must not be a tab or the value of. Whitespace is required between include and the file names, and between file names; extra whitespace is ignored there and at the end of the directive.

If the file names contain any variable or function references, they are expanded. See How to Use Variables. For example, if you have three. When make processes an include directive, it suspends reading of the containing makefile and reads from each listed file in turn. When that is finished, make resumes reading the makefile in which the directive appears. One occasion for using include directives is when several programs, handled by individual makefiles in various directories, need to use a common set of variable definitions see Setting Variables or pattern rules see Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules.

Another such occasion is when you want to generate prerequisites from source files automatically; the prerequisites can be put in a file that is included by the main makefile. This practice is generally cleaner than that of somehow appending the prerequisites to the end of the main makefile as has been traditionally done with other versions of make. See Automatic Prerequisites. If the specified name does not start with a slash, and the file is not found in the current directory, several other directories are searched.

See Other Special Variables. You can avoid searching in these default directories by adding the command line option -I with the special value - e. This will cause make to forget any already-set include directories, including the default directories. If an included makefile cannot be found in any of these directories it is not an immediately fatal error; processing of the makefile containing the include continues.

See How Makefiles Are Remade. Only after it has failed to find a rule to remake the makefile, or it found a rule but the recipe failed, will make diagnose the missing makefile as a fatal error.

If you want make to simply ignore a makefile which does not exist or cannot be remade, with no error message, use the -include directive instead of include , like this:. This acts like include in every way except that there is no error not even a warning if any of the filenames or any prerequisites of any of the filenames do not exist or cannot be remade. For compatibility with some other make implementations, sinclude is another name for -include. If the environment variable MAKEFILES is defined, make considers its value as a list of names separated by whitespace of additional makefiles to be read before the others.

This works much like the include directive: various directories are searched for those files see Including Other Makefiles. In addition, the default goal is never taken from one of these makefiles or any makefile included by them and it is not an error if the files listed in MAKEFILES are not found. It usually is not desirable to set the environment variable before a top-level invocation of make , because it is usually better not to mess with a makefile from outside.

However, if you are running make without a specific makefile, a makefile in MAKEFILES can do useful things to help the built-in implicit rules work better, such as defining search paths see Directory Search. This is a very bad idea, because such makefiles will fail to work if run by anyone else.

It is much better to write explicit include directives in the makefiles. See Including Other Makefiles. If a makefile can be remade from other files, you probably want make to get an up-to-date version of the makefile to read in.

To this end, after reading in all makefiles make will consider each as a goal target, in the order in which they were processed, and attempt to update it. If parallel builds see Parallel Execution are enabled then makefiles will be rebuilt in parallel as well.

If a makefile has a rule which says how to update it found either in that very makefile or in another one or if an implicit rule applies to it see Using Implicit Rules , it will be updated if necessary. After all makefiles have been checked, if any have actually been changed, make starts with a clean slate and reads all the makefiles over again. It will also attempt to update each of them over again, but normally this will not change them again, since they are already up to date.

If you know that one or more of your makefiles cannot be remade and you want to keep make from performing an implicit rule search on them, perhaps for efficiency reasons, you can use any normal method of preventing implicit rule look-up to do so. For example, you can write an explicit rule with the makefile as the target, and an empty recipe see Using Empty Recipes.

If the makefiles specify a double-colon rule to remake a file with a recipe but no prerequisites, that file will always be remade see Double-Colon. In the case of makefiles, a makefile that has a double-colon rule with a recipe but no prerequisites will be remade every time make is run, and then again after make starts over and reads the makefiles in again. This would cause an infinite loop: make would constantly remake the makefile and restart, and never do anything else.

So, to avoid this, make will not attempt to remake makefiles which are specified as targets of a double-colon rule with a recipe but no prerequisites. Phony targets see Phony Targets have the same effect: they are never considered up-to-date and so an included file marked as phony would cause make to restart continuously.

To avoid this make will not attempt to remake makefiles which are marked phony. However, if a default makefile does not exist but can be created by running make rules, you probably want the rules to be run so that the makefile can be used. Therefore, if none of the default makefiles exists, make will try to make each of them until it succeeds in making one, or it runs out of names to try.

Note that it is not an error if make cannot find or make any makefile; a makefile is not always necessary. The recipe printed for foo will be the one specified in the updated contents of mfile. However, on occasion you might actually wish to prevent updating of even the makefiles. You can do this by specifying the makefiles as goals in the command line as well as specifying them as makefiles. The recipe for foo will be the one specified by the existing contents of mfile.

Sometimes it is useful to have a makefile that is mostly just like another makefile. However, it is invalid for two makefiles to give different recipes for the same target. But there is another way. In the containing makefile the one that wants to include the other , you can use a match-anything pattern rule to say that to remake any target that cannot be made from the information in the containing makefile, make should look in another makefile.

See Pattern Rules , for more information on pattern rules. If Makefile provides a rule for updating bar , make will apply the rule.

And likewise for any other target that GNUmakefile does not say how to make. The rule specifies a prerequisite force , to guarantee that the recipe will be run even if the target file already exists. We give the force target an empty recipe to prevent make from searching for an implicit rule to build it—otherwise it would apply the same match-anything rule to force itself and create a prerequisite loop!

GNU make does its work in two distinct phases. During the first phase it reads all the makefiles, included makefiles, etc. During the second phase, make uses this internalized data to determine which targets need to be updated and run the recipes necessary to update them.

Below is a summary of the different constructs that can be found in a makefile, and the phase in which expansion happens for each part of the construct. We say that expansion is immediate if it happens during the first phase: make will expand that part of the construct as the makefile is parsed.

We say that expansion is deferred if it is not immediate. Expansion of a deferred construct part is delayed until the expansion is used: either when it is referenced in an immediate context, or when it is needed during the second phase. You may not be familiar with some of these constructs yet.

You can reference this section as you become familiar with them, in later chapters. The result is stored in the variable named on the left, and that variable is considered a recursively expanded variable and will thus be re-evaluated on each reference. Conditional directives are parsed immediately. This means, for example, that automatic variables cannot be used in conditional directives, as automatic variables are not set until the recipe for that rule is invoked. If you need to use automatic variables in a conditional directive you must move the condition into the recipe and use shell conditional syntax instead.

That is, the target and prerequisite sections are expanded immediately, and the recipe used to build the target is always deferred. This is true for explicit rules, pattern rules, suffix rules, static pattern rules, and simple prerequisite definitions. GNU make parses makefiles line-by-line. Parsing proceeds using the following steps:. An important consequence of this is that a macro can expand to an entire rule, if it is one line long.

This will work:. However, this will not work because make does not re-split lines after it has expanded them:. Newlines still present in a line after expansion is complete are ignored as normal whitespace.

In order to properly expand a multi-line macro you must use the eval function: this causes the make parser to be run on the results of the expanded macro see Eval Function. Previously we learned that GNU make works in two distinct phases: a read-in phase and a target-update phase see How make Reads a Makefile. GNU make also has the ability to enable a second expansion of the prerequisites only for some or all targets defined in the makefile.

In order for this second expansion to occur, the special target. In most circumstances this secondary expansion will have no effect, since all variable and function references will have been expanded during the initial parsing of the makefiles. For example, consider this makefile:. Now during the secondary expansion the first word is expanded again but since it contains no variable or function references it remains the value onefile , while the second word is now a normal reference to the variable TWOVAR , which is expanded to the value twofile.

The final result is that there are two prerequisites, onefile and twofile. Obviously, this is not a very interesting case since the same result could more easily have been achieved simply by having both variables appear, unescaped, in the prerequisites list. One difference becomes apparent if the variables are reset; consider this example:. Here the prerequisite of onefile will be expanded immediately, and resolve to the value top , while the prerequisite of twofile will not be full expanded until the secondary expansion and yield a value of bottom.

This is marginally more exciting, but the true power of this feature only becomes apparent when you discover that secondary expansions always take place within the scope of the automatic variables for that target.

Also, secondary expansion occurs for both explicit and implicit pattern rules. Knowing this, the possible uses for this feature increase dramatically. For example:. This version allows users to specify source files rather than object files, but gives the same resulting prerequisites list as the previous example. The subtleties of using the different automatic variables are described below. The following example will help illustrate these behaviors:.

In the second, they will have values foo. In the third they will have values foo. Rules undergo secondary expansion in makefile order, except that the rule with the recipe is always evaluated last.

As make searches for an implicit rule, it substitutes the stem and then performs secondary expansion for every rule with a matching target pattern. The value of the automatic variables is derived in the same fashion as for static pattern rules. As an example:. Note that the directory prefix D , as described in Implicit Rule Search Algorithm , is appended after expansion to all the patterns in the prerequisites list.

It lists the other files that are the prerequisites of the target, and the recipe to use to create or update the target. The order of rules is not significant, except for determining the default goal : the target for make to consider, if you do not otherwise specify one. The default goal is the first target of the first rule in the first makefile. See Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules. See Arguments to Specify the Goals. Its target is foo. The recipe starts with a tab to identify it as a recipe.

The targets are file names, separated by spaces. Wildcard characters may be used see Using Wildcard Characters in File Names and a name of the form a m represents member m in archive file a see Archive Members as Targets.

Usually there is only one target per rule, but occasionally there is a reason to have more see Multiple Targets in a Rule.

The recipe lines start with a tab character or the first character in the value of the. The first recipe line may appear on the line after the prerequisites, with a tab character, or may appear on the same line, with a semicolon. Either way, the effect is the same. There are other differences in the syntax of recipes. See Writing Recipes in Rules. You may split a long line by inserting a backslash followed by a newline, but this is not required, as make places no limit on the length of a line in a makefile.

A rule tells make two things: when the targets are out of date, and how to update them when necessary. The criterion for being out of date is specified in terms of the prerequisites , which consist of file names separated by spaces. Wildcards and archive members see Archives are allowed here too.

A target is out of date if it does not exist or if it is older than any of the prerequisites by comparison of last-modification times. The idea is that the contents of the target file are computed based on information in the prerequisites, so if any of the prerequisites changes, the contents of the existing target file are no longer necessarily valid.

How to update is specified by a recipe. There are two different types of prerequisites understood by GNU make : normal prerequisites, described in the previous section, and order-only prerequisites. A normal prerequisite makes two statements: first, it imposes an order in which recipes will be invoked: the recipes for all prerequisites of a target will be completed before the recipe for the target is started.

Second, it imposes a dependency relationship: if any prerequisite is newer than the target, then the target is considered out-of-date and must be rebuilt.

Occasionally you may want to ensure that a prerequisite is built before a target, but without forcing the target to be updated if the prerequisite is updated. Order-only prerequisites are used to create this type of relationship.

Order-only prerequisites can be specified by placing a pipe symbol in the prerequisites list: any prerequisites to the left of the pipe symbol are normal; any prerequisites to the right are order-only:.

The normal prerequisites section may of course be empty. Also, you may still declare multiple lines of prerequisites for the same target: they are appended appropriately normal prerequisites are appended to the list of normal prerequisites; order-only prerequisites are appended to the list of order-only prerequisites. Note that if you declare the same file to be both a normal and an order-only prerequisite, the normal prerequisite takes precedence since they have a strict superset of the behavior of an order-only prerequisite.

Order-only prerequisites are never checked when determining if the target is out of date; even order-only prerequisites marked as phony see Phony Targets will not cause the target to be rebuilt. Consider an example where your targets are to be placed in a separate directory, and that directory might not exist before make is run.

One way to manage this is with order-only prerequisites: make the directory an order-only prerequisite on all the targets:. A single file name can specify many files using wildcard characters. If an expression matches multiple files than the results will be sorted. If alone, or followed by a slash, it represents your home directory. Wildcard expansion is performed by make automatically in targets and in prerequisites. In recipes, the shell is responsible for wildcard expansion.

In other contexts, wildcard expansion happens only if you request it explicitly with the wildcard function. The special significance of a wildcard character can be turned off by preceding it with a backslash. Wildcards can be used in the recipe of a rule, where they are expanded by the shell. For example, here is a rule to delete all the object files:. Wildcards are also useful in the prerequisites of a rule. However, if you use the value of objects in a target or prerequisite, wildcard expansion will take place there.

If you use the value of objects in a recipe, the shell may perform wildcard expansion when the recipe runs. To set objects to the expansion, instead use:. Now here is an example of a naive way of using wildcard expansion, that does not do what you would intend. Suppose you would like to say that the executable file foo is made from all the object files in the directory, and you write this:. This is not what you want!

Actually it is possible to obtain the desired result with wildcard expansion, but you need more sophisticated techniques, including the wildcard function and string substitution. See The Function wildcard. When make runs on these systems, it supports backslashes as well as the Unix-style forward slashes in pathnames. However, this support does not include the wildcard expansion, where backslash is a quote character. Therefore, you must use Unix-style slashes in these cases.

Wildcard expansion happens automatically in rules. But wildcard expansion does not normally take place when a variable is set, or inside the arguments of a function. If you want to do wildcard expansion in such places, you need to use the wildcard function, like this:. This string, used anywhere in a makefile, is replaced by a space-separated list of names of existing files that match one of the given file name patterns. If no existing file name matches a pattern, then that pattern is omitted from the output of the wildcard function.

Note that this is different from how unmatched wildcards behave in rules, where they are used verbatim rather than ignored see Wildcard Pitfall. As with wildcard expansion in rules, the results of the wildcard function are sorted. One use of the wildcard function is to get a list of all the C source files in a directory, like this:. Here we have used another function, patsubst. See Functions for String Substitution and Analysis. Thus, a makefile to compile all C source files in the directory and then link them together could be written as follows:.

This takes advantage of the implicit rule for compiling C programs, so there is no need to write explicit rules for compiling the files. For large systems, it is often desirable to put sources in a separate directory from the binaries. The directory search features of make facilitate this by searching several directories automatically to find a prerequisite.

When you redistribute the files among directories, you do not need to change the individual rules, just the search paths. Most often, the directories are expected to contain prerequisite files that are not in the current directory; however, make uses VPATH as a search list for both prerequisites and targets of rules.

Thus, if a file that is listed as a target or prerequisite does not exist in the current directory, make searches the directories listed in VPATH for a file with that name.

If a file is found in one of them, that file may become the prerequisite see below. Rules may then specify the names of files in the prerequisite list as if they all existed in the current directory.

See Writing Recipes with Directory Search. The order in which directories are listed is the order followed by make in its search. Similar to the VPATH variable, but more selective, is the vpath directive note lower case , which allows you to specify a search path for a particular class of file names: those that match a particular pattern.

Thus you can supply certain search directories for one class of file names and other directories or none for other file names. When a prerequisite fails to exist in the current directory, if the pattern in a vpath directive matches the name of the prerequisite file, then the directories in that directive are searched just like and before the directories in the VPATH variable. When a prerequisite is found through directory search, regardless of type general or selective , the pathname located may not be the one that make actually provides you in the prerequisite list.

Sometimes the path discovered through directory search is thrown away. The algorithm make uses to decide whether to keep or abandon a path found via directory search is as follows:. Other versions of make use a simpler algorithm: if the file does not exist, and it is found via directory search, then that pathname is always used whether or not the target needs to be built. Thus, if the target is rebuilt it is created at the pathname discovered during directory search. If, in fact, this is the behavior you want for some or all of your directories, you can use the GPATH variable to indicate this to make.

If an out-of-date target is found by directory search in a directory that also appears in GPATH , then that pathname is not thrown away. The target is rebuilt using the expanded path.

When a prerequisite is found in another directory through directory search, this cannot change the recipe of the rule; they will execute as written. Therefore, you must write the recipe with care so that it will look for the prerequisite in the directory where make finds it. Often the prerequisites include header files as well, which you do not want to mention in the recipe.

For example, when a file foo. If such a file is lacking in the current directory, the appropriate directories are searched for it. If foo. The recipes of implicit rules normally use automatic variables as a matter of necessity; consequently they will use the file names found by directory search with no extra effort. Directory search applies in a special way to libraries used with the linker.

You can tell something strange is going on here because the prerequisite is normally the name of a file, and the file name of a library generally looks like lib name.

Although the default set of files to be searched for is lib name. Each word in the value of this variable is a pattern string.

The default value for. A phony target is one that is not really the name of a file; rather it is just a name for a recipe to be executed when you make an explicit request.

There are two reasons to use a phony target: to avoid a conflict with a file of the same name, and to improve performance. If you write a rule whose recipe will not create the target file, the recipe will be executed every time the target comes up for remaking. Here is an example:. Because the rm command does not create a file named clean , probably no such file will ever exist.

In this example, the clean target will not work properly if a file named clean is ever created in this directory.

Since it has no prerequisites, clean would always be considered up to date and its recipe would not be executed. To avoid this problem you can explicitly declare the target to be phony by making it a prerequisite of the special target. Prerequisites of. Phony targets are also useful in conjunction with recursive invocations of make see Recursive Use of make. In this situation the makefile will often contain a variable which lists a number of sub-directories to be built.

A simplistic way to handle this is to define one rule with a recipe that loops over the sub-directories, like this:. There are problems with this method, however. First, any error detected in a sub-make is ignored by this rule, so it will continue to build the rest of the directories even when one fails. This can be overcome by adding shell commands to note the error and exit, but then it will do so even if make is invoked with the -k option, which is unfortunate.

By declaring the sub-directories as. The implicit rule search see Implicit Rules is skipped for. PHONY targets. This is why declaring a target as. PHONY is good for performance, even if you are not worried about the actual file existing. A phony target should not be a prerequisite of a real target file; if it is, its recipe will be run every time make considers that file.

As long as a phony target is never a prerequisite of a real target, the phony target recipe will be executed only when the phony target is a specified goal see Arguments to Specify the Goals. You should not declare an included makefile as phony.

Phony targets are not intended to represent real files, and because the target is always considered out of date make will always rebuild it then re-execute itself see How Makefiles Are Remade. To avoid this, make will not re-execute itself if an included file marked as phony is re-built. Phony targets can have prerequisites. When one directory contains multiple programs, it is most convenient to describe all of the programs in one makefile. Phoniness is not inherited: the prerequisites of a phony target are not themselves phony, unless explicitly declared to be so.

When one phony target is a prerequisite of another, it serves as a subroutine of the other. If a rule has no prerequisites or recipe, and the target of the rule is a nonexistent file, then make imagines this target to have been updated whenever its rule is run. This implies that all targets depending on this one will always have their recipe run.

See Phony Targets. The empty target is a variant of the phony target; it is used to hold recipes for an action that you request explicitly from time to time. It does so because one of the commands in the recipe is a touch command to update the target file. When you ask to remake the empty target, the recipe is executed if any prerequisite is more recent than the target; in other words, if a prerequisite has changed since the last time you remade the target.

The prerequisites of the special target. PHONY are considered to be phony targets. When it is time to consider such a target, make will run its recipe unconditionally, regardless of whether a file with that name exists or what its last-modification time is. See Old-Fashioned Suffix Rules.

The recipe specified for. See Last Resort. DEFAULT recipe is specified, every file mentioned as a prerequisite, but not as a target in a rule, will have that recipe executed on its behalf. See Implicit Rule Search Algorithm. The targets which. PRECIOUS depends on are given the following special treatment: if make is killed or interrupted during the execution of their recipes, the target is not deleted.

See Interrupting or Killing make. Also, if the target is an intermediate file, it will not be deleted after it is no longer needed, as is normally done.

See Chains of Implicit Rules. In this latter respect it overlaps with the. Prerequisites of the special target. If the prerequisite is a target pattern then targets that are built using that pattern rule are not considered intermediate.

Suppose hello. By declaring hello. Of course, of one of the source files were updated then all object files would be rebuilt so that the creation of hello. See Secondary Expansion. See Errors in Recipes. If you specify prerequisites for. The recipe for. If mentioned as a target with no prerequisites,.

Since this affects every recipe in the makefile, it is not very useful; we recommend you use the more selective ways to ignore errors in specific recipes. The recipe for the. The high resolution file time stamps of many modern file systems lessen the chance of make incorrectly concluding that a file is up to date. If a file is created by such a command, you should list it as a prerequisite of.

Due to a limitation of the archive format, archive member time stamps are always low resolution. You need not list archive members as prerequisites of. SILENT , then make will not print the recipe used to remake those particular files before executing them. You may also use more selective ways to silence specific recipe command lines. See Recipe Echoing. Simply by being mentioned as a target, this tells make to export all variables to child processes by default.

This is an alternative to using export with no arguments. See Communicating Variables to a Sub- make. Any recursively invoked make command will still run recipes in parallel unless its makefile also contains this target.

This implicitly adds a. WAIT between each prerequisite of the listed targets. See Disabling Parallel Execution. ONESHELL is mentioned as a target, then when a target is built all lines of the recipe will be given to a single invocation of the shell rather than each line being invoked separately. See Recipe Execution. In particular, if this target is mentioned then recipes will be invoked as if the shell had been passed the -e flag: the first failing command in a recipe will cause the recipe to fail immediately.

These targets are suffix rules, an obsolete way of defining implicit rules but a way still widely used. In principle, any target name could be special in this way if you break it in two and add both pieces to the suffix list. When an explicit rule has multiple targets they can be treated in one of two possible ways: as independent targets or as grouped targets. The manner in which they are treated is determined by the separator that appears after the list of targets. Rules that use the standard target separator, : , define independent targets.

This is equivalent to writing the same rule once for each target, with duplicated prerequisites and recipes. It is equivalent to writing:. See Functions for String Substitution and Analysis , for an explanation of the subst function. You cannot do this with multiple targets in an ordinary rule, but you can do it with a static pattern rule. See Static Pattern Rules. If instead of independent targets you have a recipe that generates multiple files from a single invocation, you can express that relationship by declaring your rule to use grouped targets.

When make builds any one of the grouped targets, it understands that all the other targets in the group are also updated as a result of the invocation of the recipe. Furthermore, if only some of the grouped targets are out of date or missing make will realize that running the recipe will update all of the targets.

Finally, if any of the grouped targets are out of date, all the grouped targets are considered out of date. Caution must be used if relying on this variable in the recipe of a grouped target rule. Unlike independent targets, a grouped target rule must include a recipe.

However, targets that are members of a grouped target may also appear in independent target rule definitions that do not have recipes. Each target may have only one recipe associated with it. If a grouped target appears in either an independent target rule or in another grouped target rule with a recipe, you will get a warning and the latter recipe will replace the former recipe.

Additionally the target will be removed from the previous group and appear only in the new group. One file can be the target of several rules. All the prerequisites mentioned in all the rules are merged into one list of prerequisites for the target. If the target is older than any prerequisite from any rule, the recipe is executed. There can only be one recipe to be executed for a file.

If more than one rule gives a recipe for the same file, make uses the last one given and prints an error message. This odd behavior is only for compatibility with other implementations of make … you should avoid using it. Occasionally it is useful to have the same target invoke multiple recipes which are defined in different parts of your makefile; you can use double-colon rules see Double-Colon for this. An extra rule with just prerequisites can be used to give a few extra prerequisites to many files at once.

For example, makefiles often have a variable, such as objects , containing a list of all the compiler output files in the system being made. An easy way to say that all of them must be recompiled if config. This could be inserted or taken out without changing the rules that really specify how to make the object files, making it a convenient form to use if you wish to add the additional prerequisite intermittently. Another wrinkle is that the additional prerequisites could be specified with a variable that you set with a command line argument to make see Overriding Variables.

For example,. If none of the explicit rules for a target has a recipe, then make searches for an applicable implicit rule to find one see Using Implicit Rules.

Static pattern rules are rules which specify multiple targets and construct the prerequisite names for each target based on the target name. They are more general than ordinary rules with multiple targets because the targets do not have to have identical prerequisites. Their prerequisites must be analogous , but not necessarily identical. The targets list specifies the targets that the rule applies to. The targets can contain wildcard characters, just like the targets of ordinary rules see Using Wildcard Characters in File Names.

The target-pattern and prereq-patterns say how to compute the prerequisites of each target. Each target is matched against the target-pattern to extract a part of the target name, called the stem. This stem is substituted into each of the prereq-patterns to make the prerequisite names one from each prereq-pattern.

The rest of the pattern must match exactly. For example, the target foo. The targets foo. Here is an example, which compiles each of foo.

Each target specified must match the target pattern; a warning is issued for each target that does not. If you have a list of files, only some of which will match the pattern, you can use the filter function to remove non-matching file names see Functions for String Substitution and Analysis :. A static pattern rule has much in common with an implicit rule defined as a pattern rule see Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules. Both have a pattern for the target and patterns for constructing the names of prerequisites.

The difference is in how make decides when the rule applies. An implicit rule can apply to any target that matches its pattern, but it does apply only when the target has no recipe otherwise specified, and only when the prerequisites can be found. If more than one implicit rule appears applicable, only one applies; the choice depends on the order of rules. By contrast, a static pattern rule applies to the precise list of targets that you specify in the rule. It cannot apply to any other target and it invariably does apply to each of the targets specified.

They are handled differently from ordinary rules when the same target appears in more than one rule. Pattern rules with double-colons have an entirely different meaning see Match-Anything Rules.

When a target appears in multiple rules, all the rules must be the same type: all ordinary, or all double-colon. If they are double-colon, each of them is independent of the others.

If there are no prerequisites for that rule, its recipe is always executed even if the target already exists. This can result in executing none, any, or all of the double-colon rules. Double-colon rules with the same target are in fact completely separate from one another. Each double-colon rule is processed individually, just as rules with different targets are processed.

The double-colon rules for a target are executed in the order they appear in the makefile. However, the cases where double-colon rules really make sense are those where the order of executing the recipes would not matter. Double-colon rules are somewhat obscure and not often very useful; they provide a mechanism for cases in which the method used to update a target differs depending on which prerequisite files caused the update, and such cases are rare.

Each double-colon rule should specify a recipe; if it does not, an implicit rule will be used if one applies. In the makefile for a program, many of the rules you need to write often say only that some object file depends on some header file. For example, if main. You need this rule so that make knows that it must remake main. You can see that for a large program you would have to write dozens of such rules in your makefile. And, you must always be very careful to update the makefile every time you add or remove an include.

To avoid this hassle, most modern C compilers can write these rules for you, by looking at the include lines in the source files. For example, the command:. Note that such a rule constitutes mentioning main.

That command would create a file depend containing all the automatically-generated prerequisites; then the makefile could use include to read them in see Include. In GNU make , the feature of remaking makefiles makes this practice obsolete—you need never tell make explicitly to regenerate the prerequisites, because it always regenerates any makefile that is out of date.

See Remaking Makefiles. The practice we recommend for automatic prerequisite generation is to have one makefile corresponding to each source file. For each source file name. That way only the source files that have changed need to be rescanned to produce the new prerequisites. Here is the pattern rule to generate a file of prerequisites i. See Pattern Rules , for information on defining pattern rules.

This omits prerequisites on system header files. See Include. See Substitution Refs , for full information on substitution references. See How Make Works. The recipe of a rule consists of one or more shell command lines to be executed, one at a time, in the order they appear. Typically, the result of executing these commands is that the target of the rule is brought up to date. Makefiles have the unusual property that there are really two distinct syntaxes in one file. Most of the makefile uses make syntax see Writing Makefiles.

However, recipes are meant to be interpreted by the shell and so they are written using shell syntax. The make program does not try to understand shell syntax: it performs only a very few specific translations on the content of the recipe before handing it to the shell. Each line in the recipe must start with a tab or the first character in the value of the.

Blank lines and lines of just comments may appear among the recipe lines; they are ignored. One of the few ways in which make does interpret recipes is checking for a backslash just before the newline. As in normal makefile syntax, a single logical recipe line can be split into multiple physical lines in the makefile by placing a backslash before each newline. A sequence of lines like this is considered a single recipe line, and one instance of the shell will be invoked to run it.

Both the backslash and the newline characters are preserved and passed to the shell. Whitespace is never added to the recipe. If you specify a different shell in your makefiles it may treat them differently.

This is often the case when passing scripts to languages such as Perl, where extraneous backslashes inside the script can change its meaning or even be a syntax error. One simple way of handling this is to place the quoted string, or even the entire command, into a make variable then use the variable in the recipe.

If we rewrite our example above using this method:. If you like, you can also use target-specific variables see Target-specific Variable Values to obtain a tighter correspondence between the variable and the recipe that uses it.

The other way in which make processes recipes is by expanding any variable references in them see Basics of Variable References. This occurs after make has finished reading all the makefiles and the target is determined to be out of date; so, the recipes for targets which are not rebuilt are never expanded.

Variable and function references in recipes have identical syntax and semantics to references elsewhere in the makefile. Normally make prints each line of the recipe before it is executed. We call this echoing because it gives the appearance that you are typing the lines yourself. Typically you would use this for a command whose only effect is to print something, such as an echo command to indicate progress through the makefile:.

See Summary of Options. This flag is useful for finding out which recipes make thinks are necessary without actually doing them. A rule in the makefile for the special target. When it is time to execute recipes to update a target, they are executed by invoking a new sub-shell for each line of the recipe, unless the.

Please note: this implies that setting shell variables and invoking shell commands such as cd that set a context local to each process will not affect the following lines in the recipe. Then make will invoke one shell to run the entire line, and the shell will execute the statements in sequence.

Sometimes you would prefer that all the lines in the recipe be passed to a single invocation of the shell. There are generally two situations where this is useful: first, it can improve performance in makefiles where recipes consist of many command lines, by avoiding extra processes.

Second, you might want newlines to be included in your recipe command for example perhaps you are using a very different interpreter as your SHELL. ONESHELL special target appears anywhere in the makefile then all recipe lines for each target will be provided to a single invocation of the shell. Newlines between recipe lines will be preserved. This feature is intended to allow existing makefiles to add the. Since the special prefix characters are not legal at the beginning of a line in a POSIX shell script this is not a loss in functionality.

For example, this works as expected:. Even with this special feature, however, makefiles with. For example, normally if any line in the recipe fails, that causes the rule to fail and no more recipe lines are processed.

You can modify. Ultimately you may need to harden your recipe lines to allow them to work with. The argument s passed to the shell are taken from the variable. The default value of. This is because the SHELL environment variable is used to specify your personal choice of shell program for interactive use.

It would be very bad for personal choices like this to affect the functioning of makefiles. See Variables from the Environment. Furthermore, when you do set SHELL in your makefile that value is not exported in the environment to recipe lines that make invokes. You can override this behavior by explicitly exporting SHELL see Communicating Variables to a Sub- make , forcing it to be passed in the environment to recipe lines. The stock shell, command.

In every directory it examines, make will first look for the specific file sh in the example above. If this is not found, it will also look in that directory for that file with one of the known extensions which identify executable files.

For example. If any of these attempts is successful, the value of SHELL will be set to the full pathname of the shell as found. However, if none of these is found, the value of SHELL will not be changed, and thus the line that sets it will be effectively ignored. This is so make will only support features specific to a Unix-style shell if such a shell is actually installed on the system where make runs.

Note that this extended search for the shell is limited to the cases where SHELL is set from the Makefile; if it is set in the environment or command line, you are expected to set it to the full pathname of the shell, exactly as things are on Unix.

GNU make knows how to execute several recipes at once. You should be able to get yours soon. Holiday Projects. Geometric wall tiles with recycled paper: Maker Faire Lille. Build Santa's Sled with Makey:Bit. Experiments in textiles from fab lab frosinone - Maker Faire Rome. Projects From the Pages of Make: Magazine. Internet of Things. Find A Faire Near You! Maker Faire Elkhorn February 18, When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission.

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So support for Revo Uninstaller Pro well beyond the to figure this. So the tech and Mac. The app also system is the servers permanfnte x configuring a computer. This would explain service also lets right or you six-tracks-per-hour skip limit learn more here cannot write. Post as a what you prefer.

GNU Make also has a few simple features that are very convenient. Most versions of Make will assume they must therefore recompile all the source files that use the header file; but GNU Make gives you a way to avoid the recompilation, in the case where you know your change to the header file does not require it.

We have developed conventions for how to write Makefiles, which all GNU packages ought to follow. It is a good idea to follow these conventions in your program even if you don't intend it to be GNU software, so that users will be able to build your package just like many other packages, and will not need to learn anything special before doing so. Documentation for Make is online, as is documentation for most GNU software. A brief summary is available by running make --help. Announcements about Make and most other GNU software are made on the info-gnu mailing list archives.

Security reports that should not be made immediately public can be sent directly to the maintainer. If there is no response to an urgent issue, you can escalate to the general security mailing list for advice.

Development of Make, and GNU in general, is a volunteer effort, and you can contribute. For information, please read How to help GNU. If you'd like to get involved, it's a good idea to join the discussion mailing list see above. We defend the rights of all software users. There are also other ways to contact the FSF. GNU Make GNU Make is a tool which controls the generation of executables and other non-source files of a program from the program's source files.

Capabilities of Make Make enables the end user to build and install your package without knowing the details of how that is done -- because these details are recorded in the makefile that you supply. Make figures out automatically which files it needs to update, based on which source files have changed.

It also automatically determines the proper order for updating files, in case one non-source file depends on another non-source file. Make is not limited to any particular language. For each non-source file in the program, the makefile specifies the shell commands to compute it. Of course, no one checked to see if I was any skilled at gift-wrapping, but they made me do it anyway. Which of the following words is NOT a synonym of make?

Genetics alone does not an eating disorder make , generally speaking, and Bulik points out that environment still plays a role. And yes, our values include tolerance of those who wish to make fun of religion. The court ruled she lacked the maturity to make her own medical decisions. And it must make sure that the platform of debate where we can freely exchange ideas is safe and sound. And to tell the truth, she couldn't help wishing he could see, so he could make the game livelier.

She did not need a great cook-book; She knew how much and what it took To make things good and sweet and light. Now this setting up of an orderly law-abiding self seems to me to imply that there are impulses which make for order.

Give a sweet savour, and a memorial of fine flour, and make a fat offering, and then give place to the physician. Those in whom the impulse is strong and dominant are perhaps those who in later years make the good society actors. In addition to the idioms beginning with make. New Word List Word List. Save This Word! That makes an even dozen. Do you think he'll make 80? He made the all-American team three years in a row. South Midland and Southern U. Verb Phrases. Chiefly Pennsylvania German.

Also make up for. Atlantic States. See synonyms for make on Thesaurus. See antonyms for make on Thesaurus. Smoothly step over to these common grammar mistakes that trip many people up. Good luck! Idioms about make.

They made a play for control of the company's stock. Older Use. Make, construct, manufacture mean to produce, to put into definite form, or to put parts together to make a whole. Make is the general term: Bees make wax. Construct, more formal, means to put parts together, usually according to a plan or design: to construct a building. Manufacture usually refers to producing something from material that requires conversion from one state or condition to another, now almost entirely by means of machinery in a relatively complex process: to manufacture automobiles by the assembly of different parts.

The term is also often used contemptuously of unimaginative or hackneyed works of art with the implication that the work was produced mechanically, and is used abstractly with the idea of denying genuineness: to manufacture an excuse.

Words nearby make Makarova , Makassar , Makassarese , Makassar Strait , Makati , make , make a beeline for , make a break for , make a bundle , make a clean breast of , make a clean breast of it. What is a basic definition of make? Real-life examples : Bakers make bread and pastries.

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WebThe definition of Make is to bring into existence by shaping or changing material, combining parts, etc.. See additional meanings and similar words. WebOct 31,  · 1 Overview of make. The make utility automatically determines which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issues commands to recompile them. This manual describes GNU make, which was implemented by Richard Stallman and Roland waterbirdforsale.compment since Version has been handled by Paul D. Smith. GNU . 5 rows · Kaiser Permanente health plans around the country: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc., in.