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Under closer scrutiny none of these have stood up. Blue has very few connections to taste or smell. Therefore it may act as an appetite suppressant. Supposing the color blue was removed from the world, specifically the sea and sky Explore the meanings of more colors! Color Matters is a registered trademark of J. Graphics and Text: Copyright c , J. Morton, All rights reserved. The Meanings of Colors: Blue.

The Meanings of Blue Blue is the favorite color of all people. Dark blue: trust, dignity, intelligence, authority Bright blue: cleanliness, strength, dependability, coolness The origin of these meanings arise from the qualities of the ocean and inland waters, most of which are more tangible. Global Meanings of Blue Blue's global similarities are significant: Blue is the 1 favorite color of all people. Aristocracy is blue-blooded in all European languages.

Dark blue is the color of mourning in Korea. The god Krishna has blue skin. The same refraction causes visual fog if used excessively in interior spaces. Some Truths about the Effects of Blue Blue has very few connections to taste or smell. Also from Color Matters. On a colour wheel based on traditional colour theory RYB where blue was considered a primary colour, its complementary colour is considered to be orange based on the Munsell colour wheel.

Lasers emitting in the blue region of the spectrum became widely available to the public in with the release of inexpensive high-powered nm laser diode technology. Blue is the colour of light between violet and cyan on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include indigo and ultramarine , closer to violet; pure blue, without any mixture of other colours; Azure, which is a lighter shade of blue, similar to the colour of the sky; Cyan, which is midway in the spectrum between blue and green , and the other blue-greens such as turquoise , teal , and aquamarine.

Blue also varies in shade or tint; darker shades of blue contain black or grey, while lighter tints contain white. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue , navy blue , and Prussian blue ; while lighter tints include sky blue , azure , and Egyptian blue. For a more complete list see the List of colours. In nature, many blue phenomena arise from structural colouration , the result of interference between reflections from two or more surfaces of thin films , combined with refraction as light enters and exits such films.

The geometry then determines that at certain angles, the light reflected from both surfaces interferes constructively, while at other angles, the light interferes destructively. Diverse colours therefore appear despite the absence of colourants.

Egyptian blue , the first artificial pigment, was produced in the third millennium BC in Ancient Egypt. It is produced by heating pulverized sand, copper, and natron. It was used in tomb paintings and funereal objects to protect the dead in their afterlife. Prior to the s, blue colourants for artwork were mainly based on lapis lazuli and the related mineral ultramarine.

A breakthrough occurred in when German druggist and pigment maker Johann Jacob Diesbach discovered Prussian blue. The new blue arose from experiments involving heating dried blood with iron sulphides and was initially called Berliner Blau. By it was being used by the French painter Antoine Watteau , and later his successor Nicolas Lancret. It became immensely popular for the manufacture of wallpaper, and in the 19th century was widely used by French impressionist painters.

It was called bero-ai , or Berlin blue, and it became popular because it did not fade like traditional Japanese blue pigment, ai-gami , made from the dayflower. Prussian blue was used by both Hokusai , in his wave paintings, and Hiroshige. The prize was won in by a chemist named Jean Baptiste Guimet, but he refused to reveal the formula of his colour.

This was the beginning of new industry to manufacture artificial ultramarine, which eventually almost completely replaced the natural product. In German chemists synthesized indigo. This product rapidly replaced natural indigo, wiping out vast farms growing indigo.

It is now the blue of blue jeans. As the pace of organic chemistry accelerated, a succession of synthetic blue dyes were discovered including Indanthrone blue , which had even greater resistance to fading during washing or in the sun, and copper phthalocyanine.

The Blue Boy , featuring lapis lazuli, indigo, and cobalt colourants, [19]. The Great Wave off Kanagawa illustrates the use of Prussian blue. Blue dyes are organic compounds, both synthetic and natural.

Produced on an industrial scale, indigo is the blue of blue jeans. For food, the triarylmethane dye Brilliant blue FCF is used for candies. The search continues for stable, natural blue dyes suitable for the food industry. Blue pigments were once produced from minerals, especially lapis lazuli and its close relative ultramarine.

These minerals were crushed, ground into powder, and then mixed with a quick-drying binding agent, such as egg yolk tempera painting ; or with a slow-drying oil, such as linseed oil , for oil painting.

The chromophore in blue glass and glazes is cobalt II. Diverse cobalt II salts such as cobalt carbonate or cobalt II aluminate are mixed with the silica prior to firing. The cobalt occupies sites otherwise filled with silicon. Methyl blue is the dominant blue pigment in inks used in pens.

Certain metal ions characteristically form blue solutions or blue salts. Of some practical importance, cobalt is used to make the deep blue glazes and glasses. It substitutes for silicon or aluminum ions in these materials. Cobalt is the blue chromophore in stained glass windows , such as those in Gothic cathedrals and in Chinese porcelain beginning in the T'ang Dynasty.

Similarly, vanadyl salts and solutions are often blue, e. When sunlight passes through the atmosphere, the blue wavelengths are scattered more widely by the oxygen and nitrogen molecules, and more blue comes to our eyes. This effect is called Rayleigh scattering , after Lord Rayleigh and confirmed by Albert Einstein in The sea is seen as blue for largely the same reason: the water absorbs the longer wavelengths of red and reflects and scatters the blue, which comes to the eye of the viewer.

The deeper the observer goes, the darker the blue becomes. In the open sea, only about one per cent of light penetrates to a depth of metres. See underwater and euphotic depth. The colour of the sea is also affected by the colour of the sky, reflected by particles in the water; and by algae and plant life in the water, which can make it look green; or by sediment, which can make it look brown. The farther away an object is, the more blue it often appears to the eye.

For example, mountains in the distance often appear blue. This is the effect of atmospheric perspective ; the farther an object is away from the viewer, the less contrast there is between the object and its background colour, which is usually blue. In a painting where different parts of the composition are blue, green and red, the blue will appear to be more distant, and the red closer to the viewer.

The cooler a colour is, the more distant it seems. Earth's blue halo when seen from space. Another example of Rayleigh scattering. Some of the most desirable gems are blue, including sapphire and tanzanite. Compounds of copper II are characteristically blue and so are many copper-containing minerals. Azurite Cu 3 CO 3 2 OH 2 , with a deep blue colour, was once employed in medieval years, but it is unstable pigment, losing its colour especially under dry conditions.

Lapis lazuli , mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, was used for jewelry and ornaments, and later was crushed and powdered and used as a pigment. The more it was ground, the lighter the blue colour became. Natural ultramarine , made was the finest available blue pigment in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It was extremely expensive, and in Italian Renaissance art, it was often reserved for the robes of the Virgin Mary. Morning glory Ipomoea acuminata.

Vaccinium corymbosum. Lactarius indigo [26]. Intense efforts have focused on blue flowers and the possibility that natural blue colourants could be used as food dyes. The most brilliant blue colouration known in any living tissue is found in the marble berries of Pollia condensata , where a spiral structure of cellulose fibrils scattering blue light.

The fruit of quandong Santalum acuminatum can appear blue owing to the same effect. Morpho butterfly. Indigo buntings have iridescent feathers. The mandarin fish is one of few animal species with blue pigment. Male moor frogs become blue during the height of mating season. Blue-pigmented animals are relatively rare. Examples include the plumage of several birds like the blue jay and indigo bunting , [32] the scales of butterflies like the morpho butterfly , [33] collagen fibres in the skin of some species of monkey and opossum , [34] and the iridophore cells in some fish and frogs.

Blue eyes do not actually contain any blue pigment. Eye colour is determined by two factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris [37] [38] and the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris. The appearance of blue, green, and hazel eyes results from the Tyndall scattering of light in the stroma, an optical effect similar to what accounts for the blueness of the sky.

Eye colour also varies depending on the lighting conditions, especially for lighter-coloured eyes. In the United States, as of , one out of every six people, or Blue eyes are becoming less common among American children [ citation needed ]. In the US, boys are 35 per cent more likely to have blue eyes than girls. Egyptian blue tripodic beaker imitating lapis lazuli. South Mesopotamia. Fresco of Polyphemus and Galatea, Pompei, using Egyptian blue 1st c.

BC Metropolitan Museum. As early as the 7th millennium BC , lapis lazuli was mined in the Sar-i Sang mines, [45] in Shortugai , and in other mines in Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan.

Lapis lazuli artifacts, dated to BC, have been found at Bhirrana , which is the oldest site of Indus Valley civilisation. A term for Blue was relatively rare in many forms of ancient art and decoration, and even in ancient literature. The Ancient Greek poets described the sea as green, brown or "the colour of wine".

The colour was not mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Blue was also not used for dyeing fabric until long after red, ochre, pink, and purple. This is probably due to the perennial difficulty of making blue dyes and pigments. On the other hand, the rarity of blue pigment made it even more valuable. The earliest known blue dyes were made from plants woad in Europe, indigo in Asia and Africa, while blue pigments were made from minerals, usually either lapis lazuli or azurite , and required more.

In ca. Blue was not one of the four primary colours for Greek painting described by Pliny the Elder red, yellow, black, and white. For the Romans, blue was the colour of mourning, as well as the colour of barbarians. The Celts and Germans reportedly dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old. The Romans had many words for varieties of blue, including caeruleus , caesius , glaucus , cyaneus , lividus , venetus , aerius , and ferreus , but two words, both of foreign origin, became the most enduring; blavus , from the Germanic word blau , which eventually became bleu or blue; and azureus , from the Arabic word lazaward , which became azure.

Blue was widely used in the decoration of churches in the Byzantine Empire. At certain times in Moorish Spain and other parts of the Islamic world, blue was the colour worn by Christians and Jews, because only Muslims were allowed to wear white and green. Stained glass window at Saint Denis Basilica , coloured with cobalt blue.

The Wilton Diptych The Virgin Mary was traditionally shown in blue 14th c. In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages , blue played a minor role.

Suger considered that light was the visible manifestation of the Holy Spirit. The church became the marvel of the Christian world , and the colour became known as the "bleu de Saint-Denis". In the years that followed even more elegant blue stained glass windows were installed in other churches, including at Chartres Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.

In the 12th century the Roman Catholic Church dictated that painters in Italy and the rest of Europe consequently to paint the Virgin Mary with blue, which became associated with holiness, humility and virtue. In medieval paintings, blue was used to attract the attention of the viewer to the Virgin Mary. Paintings of the mythical King Arthur began to show him dressed in blue. The coat of arms of the kings of France became an azure or light blue shield, sprinkled with golden fleur-de-lis or lilies.

Blue had come from obscurity to become the royal colour. Blue came into wider use beginning in the Renaissance, when artists began to paint the world with perspective, depth, shadows, and light from a single source.

In Renaissance paintings, artists tried to create harmonies between blue and red, lightening the blue with lead white paint and adding shadows and highlights. Raphael was a master of this technique, carefully balancing the reds and the blues so no one colour dominated the picture. Ultramarine was the most prestigious blue of the Renaissance, being more expensive than gold.

Wealthy art patrons commissioned works with the most expensive blues possible. In Richard Sackville commissioned a portrait of himself by Isaac Oliver with three different blues, including ultramarine pigment for his stockings. Portrait of Richard Sackville , using three expensive blues, including ultramarine for his stockings. Ming Dynasty, Porcelain vase painted with cobalt blue under transparent glaze. Metropolitan Museum. Delftware plaque with cobalt blue painting Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Urn by Josiah Wedgewood s Metropolitan Museum. An industry for the manufacture of fine blue and white pottery began in the 14th century in Jingdezhen , China, using white Chinese porcelain decorated with patterns of cobalt blue , imported from Persia.

It was first made for the family of the Emperor of China, then was exported around the world, with designs for export adapted to European subjects and tastes. The Chinese blue style was also adapted by Dutch craftsmen in [Delft and English craftsmen in Staffordshire in the 17thth centuries. Beau Brummel introduced the ancestor of the modern blue suit. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil in light blue gown The early 19th century saw the ancestor of the modern blue business suit, created by Beau Brummel , who set fashion at the London Court.

It also saw the invention of blue jeans , a highly popular form of workers's costume, invented in by Jacob W. Davis who used metal rivets to strengthen blue denim work clothing in the California gold fields. The invention was funded by San Francisco entrepreneur Levi Strauss , and spread around the world.

Blue used to create a mood or atmosphere. A cobalt blue sky, and cobalt or ultramarine water. Blue conveys melancholy in Picasso 's The Old Guitarist Recognizing the emotional power of blue, many artists made it the central element of paintings in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Painter Mark Rothko observed that colour was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on. Officers of the London Metropolitan Police. In the 17th century. The Prince-Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I of Prussia , chose Prussian blue as the new colour of Prussian military uniforms, because it was made with Woad , a local crop, rather than Indigo , which was produced by the colonies of Brandenburg's rival, England.

It was worn by the German army until World War I, with the exception of the soldiers of Bavaria, who wore sky-blue. In , the Royal Navy adopted a dark shade of blue for the uniform of officers. Blue continued to be the colour of the field uniform of the US Army until , and is still the colour of the dress uniform. In the 19th century, police in the United Kingdom, including the Metropolitan Police and the City of London Police also adopted a navy blue uniform.

Similar traditions were embraced in France and Austria. In Hinduism , Krishna is depicted with blue skin. Blue domes of the Church dedicated to St. Spirou in Firostefani, Santorini island Thira , Greece.

Persian blue in Shah mosque 16th c. The flag of Israel uses a special variety of blue, called tekhelet. The Italian national football team.

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Webblue: [adjective] of the color whose hue is that of the clear sky: of the color blue (see 2blue 1). WebBlue is the only color which maintains its own character in all its tones it will always stay blue; Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist Painter, from Color Matters. How Blue Affects Vision. Blue is sharply refracted by the eyes. This causes the lens to flatten and to push the blue image back. We perceive that blue areas are receding and. WebBlue is the colour of light between violet and cyan on the visible waterbirdforsale.com of blue include indigo and ultramarine, closer to violet; pure blue, without any mixture of other colours; Azure, which is a lighter shade of blue, similar to the colour of the sky; Cyan, which is midway in the spectrum between blue and green, and the other blue-greens such as turquoise, teal, and aquamarine.