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It was so easy to see just how much Princess Diana loved her sons. The mother and son looked so sweet. It was a lovely family photo. It appeared to be a candid photo. Prince Harry smiles after receiving his trophy following a polo test between England and Australia in Richmond, Australia, on Nov. He looked on at photographers. A British newspaper reported Thursday April 26, that army chiefs were reconsidering their decision to allow Prince Harry to fight in Iraq with his army regiment.
In this image made available in London, Thursday Feb. Prince Harry served on the front line in Afghanistan with the British Army. In this file photo taken Dec. Palace officials said that Prince Harry is ending his role as a helicopter pilot and taking up a new job with the army in London.
He smiled with a number of officials and locals. He smiled for the crowd. In this Monday, Sept. They chatted courtside. In this Monday, Nov. They looked so incredibly happy. In this Monday Nov. Meghan looked on lovingly at her Prince. It looked like a true fairytale. In this Monday, Feb. Sunday, May 19, marks the first wedding anniversary of the besotted couple. Meghan was pregnant with their son, Archie, at the time. Baby Sussex was born Monday at a.
Meghan wore a beautiful yellow frock. It was one of their last appearances as senior members of the royal family. Prince Harry falls off his horse during a polo match in California on June 10, The Duke of Sussex was unhurt in the incident and he got on another horse to continue in the game.
They followed Prince William and Kate Middleton at the procession. Audrey Rock 6 days ago. Trump on the possibility of Ron DeSantis running against him in 'We'll handle that the way I handle things'. Robert of Gloucester had garrisoned the ports of Dover and Canterbury and some accounts suggest that they refused Stephen access when he first arrived.
The crowds in London traditionally claimed a right to elect the King, and they proclaimed Stephen the new monarch, believing that he would grant the city new rights and privileges in return. Furthermore, the late King had only insisted on that oath to protect the stability of the kingdom, and in light of the chaos that might now ensue, Stephen would be justified in ignoring it.
Meanwhile, the Norman nobility gathered at Le Neubourg to discuss declaring Theobald king, probably following the news that Stephen was gathering support in England. Their discussions were interrupted by the sudden news from England that Stephen's coronation was to occur the next day.
Stephen's new Anglo-Norman kingdom had been shaped by the Norman conquest of England in , followed by the Norman expansion into south Wales over the coming years.
Certainly lands in Normandy, passed by hereditary right, were usually considered more important to major barons than those in England, where their possession was less certain. Henry had increased the authority and capabilities of the central royal administration, often bringing in " new men " to fulfil key positions rather than using the established nobility.
Stephen had to intervene in the north of England immediately after his coronation. Returning south, Stephen held his first royal court at Easter Troubles continued across Stephen's kingdom. After the Welsh victory at the battle of Llwchwr in January and the successful ambush of Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare in April, south Wales rose in rebellion, starting in east Glamorgan and rapidly spreading across the rest of south Wales during Neither mission was particularly successful, and by the end of the King appears to have abandoned attempts to put down the rebellion.
Historian David Crouch suggests that Stephen effectively "bowed out of Wales" around this time to concentrate on his other problems. The security of Normandy was also a concern. Geoffrey of Anjou invaded in early and, after a temporary truce, invaded later the same year, raiding and burning estates rather than trying to hold the territory.
In the years following his succession, Stephen's relationship with the church became gradually more complex. The royal charter of had promised to review the ownership of all the lands that had been taken by the crown from the church since , but these estates were now typically owned by nobles. Stephen responded by seizing his personal wealth, which caused some discontent amongst the senior clergy. The papacy named Henry papal legate , possibly as consolation for not receiving Canterbury.
Stephen's first few years as king can be interpreted in different ways. He stabilised the northern border with Scotland, contained Geoffrey's attacks on Normandy, was at peace with Louis VI, enjoyed good relations with the church and had the broad support of his barons. The north of England was now controlled by David and Prince Henry, Stephen had abandoned Wales, the fighting in Normandy had considerably destabilised the duchy, and an increasing number of barons felt that Stephen had given them neither the lands nor the titles they felt they deserved or were owed.
Stephen was attacked on several fronts during First, Robert, Earl of Gloucester , rebelled against the King, starting the descent into civil war in England.
He was known for his qualities as a statesman, his military experience, and leadership ability. David of Scotland also invaded the north of England once again, announcing that he was supporting the claim of his niece the Empress Matilda to the throne, pushing south into Yorkshire. Anglo-Norman warfare during the reign of Stephen was characterised by attritional military campaigns, in which commanders tried to seize key enemy castles in order to allow them to take control of their adversaries' territory and ultimately win a slow, strategic victory.
These armies, however, were ill-suited to besieging castles, whether the older motte-and-bailey designs or the newer, stone-built keeps. Existing siege engines were significantly less powerful than the later trebuchet designs, giving defenders a substantial advantage over attackers.
As a result, slow sieges to starve defenders out, or mining operations to undermine walls, tended to be preferred by commanders over direct assaults. Stephen's personal qualities as a military leader focused on his skill in personal combat, his capabilities in siege warfare and a remarkable ability to move military forces quickly over relatively long distances. His wife Matilda was sent to Kent with ships and resources from Boulogne, with the task of retaking the key port of Dover , under Robert's control.
Stephen's military campaign in England had progressed well, and historian David Crouch describes it as "a military achievement of the first rank". Stephen prepared for the Angevin invasion by creating a number of additional earldoms.
Stephen created many more, filling them with men he considered to be loyal, capable military commanders, and in the more vulnerable parts of the country assigning them new lands and additional executive powers. Stephen was heavily influenced by his principal advisor, Waleran de Beaumont , the twin brother of Robert of Leicester.
The Beaumont twins and their younger brother and cousins received the majority of these new earldoms. Stephen took steps to remove a group of bishops he regarded as a threat to his rule. Roger and his family were also enemies of Waleran, who disliked their control of the royal administration.
In June , Stephen held his court in Oxford, where a fight between Alan of Brittany and Roger's men broke out, an incident probably deliberately created by Stephen. This threat was backed up by the arrest of the bishops, with the exception of Nigel who had taken refuge in Devizes Castle ; the bishop only surrendered after Stephen besieged the castle and threatened to execute Roger le Poer.
Stephen's brother, Henry of Blois, was alarmed by this, both as a matter of principle, since Stephen had previously agreed in to respect the freedoms of the church, and more pragmatically because he himself had recently built six castles and had no desire to be treated in the same way.
Henry asserted the Church's right to investigate and judge all charges against members of the clergy. The King was supported by Hugh of Amiens , Archbishop of Rouen , who challenged the bishops to show how canon law entitled them to build or hold castles. Aubrey threatened that Stephen would complain to the pope that he was being harassed by the English church, and the council let the matter rest following an unsuccessful appeal to Rome.
The Angevin invasion finally arrived in Baldwin de Redvers crossed over from Normandy to Wareham in August in an initial attempt to capture a port to receive the Empress Matilda's invading army, but Stephen's forces forced him to retreat into the south-west. Stephen then agreed to a truce proposed by his brother, Henry; the full details of the truce are not known, but the results were that Stephen first released Matilda from the siege and then allowed her and her household of knights to be escorted to the south-west, where they were reunited with Robert of Gloucester.
Contemporary chroniclers suggested that Henry argued that it would be in Stephen's own best interests to release the Empress and concentrate instead on attacking Robert, and Stephen may have seen Robert, not the Empress, as his main opponent at this point in the conflict.
Having released the Empress, Stephen focused on pacifying the south-west of England. At the start of , Nigel, Bishop of Ely, whose castles Stephen had confiscated the previous year, rebelled against Stephen as well. The conference collapsed over the insistence by Henry and the clergy that they should set the terms of any peace deal, which Stephen found unacceptable. Stephen was forced to place the castle under siege. While Stephen and his army besieged Lincoln Castle at the start of , Robert of Gloucester and Ranulf of Chester advanced on the King's position with a somewhat larger force.
Robert took Stephen back to Gloucester, where the King met with the Empress Matilda, and was then moved to Bristol Castle , traditionally used for holding high-status prisoners. He had made a private deal with the Empress Matilda that he would deliver the support of the church, if she agreed to give him control over church business in England.
Once news of Stephen's capture reached him, Geoffrey of Anjou invaded Normandy again and, in the absence of Waleran of Beaumont, who was still fighting in England, Geoffrey took all the duchy south of the river Seine and east of the river Risle.
His friend and advisor Waleran was one of those who decided to defect in mid, crossing into Normandy to secure his ancestral possessions by allying himself with the Angevins, and bringing Worcestershire into the Empress's camp. Other supporters of the Empress were restored in their former strongholds, such as Bishop Nigel of Ely, or received new earldoms in the west of England.
The royal control over the minting of coins broke down, leading to coins being struck by local barons and bishops across the country. Stephen's wife Matilda played a critical part in keeping the King's cause alive during his captivity. Queen Matilda gathered Stephen's remaining lieutenants around her and the royal family in the south-east, advancing into London when the population rejected the Empress. The King's eventual release resulted from the Angevin defeat at the rout of Winchester.
At the beginning of Stephen fell ill, and by Easter rumours had begun to circulate that he had died. The garrison surrendered shortly afterwards, but Stephen had lost an opportunity to capture his principal opponent.
The war between the two sides in England reached a stalemate in the mids, while Geoffrey of Anjou consolidated his hold on power in Normandy. Once again, the Angevin cavalry proved too strong, and for a moment it appeared that Stephen might be captured for a second time. In late , Stephen faced a new threat in the east, when Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex , rose up in rebellion against him in East Anglia.
For a period, the situation continued to worsen. Ranulf of Chester revolted once again in the summer of , splitting up Stephen's Honour of Lancaster between himself and Prince Henry. After the war ground on, but progressing slightly better for Stephen.
England had suffered extensively from the war by , leading later Victorian historians to call the period of conflict " the Anarchy ". The character of the conflict in England gradually began to shift; as historian Frank Barlow suggests, by the late s "the civil war was over", barring the occasional outbreak of fighting. One potential explanation is his general courtesy to a member of his extended family; another is that he was starting to consider how to end the war peacefully, and saw this as a way of building a relationship with Henry.
The young Henry FitzEmpress returned to England again in , this time planning to form a northern alliance with Ranulf of Chester. Although still young, Henry was increasingly gaining a reputation as an energetic and capable leader. His prestige and power increased further when he unexpectedly married the attractive Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine , the recently divorced wife of Louis VII, in The marriage made Henry the future ruler of a huge swathe of territory across France.
In the final years of the war, Stephen began to focus on the issue of his family and the succession. Both Stephen's wife, Queen Matilda, and his older brother Theobald died in Stephen's relationship with the church deteriorated badly towards the end of his reign. An argument then broke out between a group of reformers based in York and backed by Bernard of Clairvaux , the head of the Cistercian order, who preferred William of Rievaulx as the new archbishop, and Stephen and his brother Henry, who preferred various Blois family relatives.
Stephen was furious over what he saw as potentially precedent-setting papal interference in his royal authority, and initially refused to allow Murdac into England. Nonetheless, the pressure on Stephen to get Eustace confirmed as his legitimate heir continued to grow. Theobald was appointed a papal legate in , adding to his authority. Henry FitzEmpress returned to England again at the start of with a small army, supported in the north and east of England by Ranulf of Chester and Hugh Bigod.
Over the summer, Stephen intensified the long-running siege of Wallingford Castle in a final attempt to take this major Angevin stronghold. In the aftermath of Wallingford, Stephen and Henry spoke together privately about a potential end to the war; Stephen's son Eustace, however, was furious about the peaceful outcome at Wallingford. He left his father and returned home to Cambridge to gather more funds for a fresh campaign, where he fell ill and died the next month. It is possible, however, that Stephen had already begun to consider passing over Eustace's claim; historian Edmund King observes that Eustace's claim to the throne was not mentioned in the discussions at Wallingford, for example, and this may have added to his anger.
Fighting continued after Wallingford, but in a rather half-hearted fashion. Stephen lost the towns of Oxford and Stamford to Henry while the King was diverted fighting Hugh Bigod in the east of England, but Nottingham Castle survived an Angevin attempt to capture it.
Stephen's decision to recognise Henry as his heir was, at the time, not necessarily a final solution to the civil war. Certainly many problems remained to be resolved, including re-establishing royal authority over the provinces and resolving the complex issue of which barons should control the contested lands and estates after the long civil war. Henry vigorously re-established royal authority in the aftermath of the civil war, dismantling castles and increasing revenues, although several of these trends had begun under Stephen.
Much of the modern history of Stephen's reign is based on accounts of chroniclers who lived in, or close to, the middle of the 12th century, forming a relatively rich account of the period. Historians in the " Whiggish " tradition that emerged during the Victorian era traced a progressive and universalist course of political and economic development in England over the medieval period. Stephen remains a popular subject for historical study: David Crouch suggests that after King John he is "arguably the most written-about medieval king of England".
Historian R. Davis 's influential biography paints a picture of a weak king: a capable military leader in the field, full of activity and pleasant, but "beneath the surface Stephen and his reign have been occasionally used in historical fiction.
Stephen and his supporters appear in Ellis Peters ' historical detective series The Cadfael Chronicles , set between and Stephen of Blois married Matilda of Boulogne in They had five children: . King Stephen's illegitimate children by his mistress Damette included: . Stephen, King of England.
Article Talk. For his father, the Crusader, see Stephen, Count of Blois. Portrait by Matthew Paris. Faversham Abbey , Kent, England. Matilda I, Countess of Boulogne. Main article: The Anarchy. Main article: Cultural depictions of Stephen, King of England.
Davis proposes , King His precise difficulties or condition remain unclear. Some theories centre on overcrowding, while others blame excessive drinking by the ship's master and crew. Historian Robert Helmerichs, for example, describes some of the inconsistencies in these accounts.
Some historians, including David Crouch and Helmerichs, argue that Theobald and Stephen had probably already made a private deal to seize the throne when Henry died. Warren Hollister , for example, argues that Henry I created a balanced, well-functioning political system beneath him, balancing the different tensions in England and Normandy, an analysis broadly shared by Frank Barlow. By contrast, David Carpenter draws more attention to the pressures on the Anglo-Norman system during Henry's reign and the strains that built up during the period.
Marjorie Chibnall 's analysis of Normandy during these years notes both the distinctive aspects of Normandy politics, the pressure on the cross-Channel relationship and the persisting ties between the English and Norman elites.
Davis and W. Warren argue that the typical earldom involved the delegation of considerable royal powers; Keith Stringer and Judith Green capture the current consensus that the degree of delegated powers followed the degree of threat, and that perhaps less powers in total were delegated than once thought. Kenji Yoshitake represents the current academic consensus when he notes that the impact of the arrests "was not serious", placing the beginning of the disintegration of the royal government at the subsequent battle of Lincoln.
David Carpenter and R. Davis, however, observe that Stephen had ended up breaking his promises to the Church, was forced to appear before a church court, and damaged his relationship with Henry of Blois, which would have grave implications in Davis believes that it did and was deterred by the presence of Stephen's forces.
Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 12 May ; Kadish, p. Retrieved 15 May Harlow: Longman. ISBN King John: An Underrated King. London: Anthem Press. Figure 1.
Amt, Emilie. Barlow, Frank. Bennett, Matthew. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Blackburn, Mark Coinage and Currency. Carpenter, David. London: Penguin. Chibnall, Marjorie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Coss, Peter. London: Hambledon Continuum.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. King Stephen's reign — Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. Davis, R. Ralph Henry Carless King Stephen. Duby, Georges. Oxford: Blackwell. Dyer, Christopher. London: Yale University Press. Die Gegenwart des Feudalismus. Garnett, George; Hudsdon, John, eds. Cambridge University Press. Gillingham, John. Helmerichs, Robert. Holt, J. Ruling England, — Harlow, England: Pearson. Kadish, Alon.
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